Public health Research and Integrated Development Organization Nepal
Study on Estimated Prevalence of Autism in Kathmandu District
Nurshing Campus, TUTH
Lived Experiences of Mother Having Children with Autism in Kathmandu
Dr. Videsha Shrestha
Mahidol University, Bangkok
Nutritional Status Among Nepalese Disabled Children (6-12)years in Kathmandu Valley
Nobel College, Pokhara University
A Study on Factors Associated with Autism
Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences College of Nursing, Tribhuvan University
Knowledge and Attitude of Parents towards Children with Autism towards Children with Autism in Kathmandu Valley
Padmakanya Multiple Campus
Teacher’s Perspective on the Inclusion of Children with Autism in Mainstream Schools
Padmakanya Multiple Campus
Coping Strategies of Parents of Child with Autism
Nurshing Campus, TUTH
Perceived Burden in Caregivers of Children Autism Spectrum Disorder
National Academy for Medical Science
Knowledge Regarding Autism Among the Family members of Children with Autism
Padmakanya Multiple Campus
A Study on Autism and its Impact on Families in Kathmandu Metropolitan City
Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences
Prevalence of Depression among Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Dr. Nisha Ghimire
Nepal Medical College
Case and Control Study of Dermatoglyphic Pattern of Sub-normal Intelligent Children”
Ms. Bibhuti Kiran Ghimire
National College, Kathmandu University
Role of Autism Care Nepal Society (ACNS) in Facilitating Education and Social Security to Children with Autism
Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, Tribhuvan Universi University
Eating Habits and Feeding Problems Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
National College, Kathmandu University
Nutritional Health And Hygiene Status Of Children Under 5 In Jagritinagar Squatter Settlement Of Kathmandu District
Public Administration Campus, Tribhuwan University
Main Barriers And Associated Factors Of Person With Neuro Developmental Disabilities In Nepal
National College, Kathmandu University
Economic Status Of Household Having Children With Autism: A Case Study Of Autism Care Nepal Society
Raj Kaji Prajapati
Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Tribhuvan University
Quality Of Life, Coping And Self-Efficacy Of Parents Raising Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Ratna Rajya Laxmi Campus, Kathmandu
Socialization of Children With Autism
BHANDARI, S (2019) SOCIALIZATION OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM
This study got closer look on Autistic Socialization process and Role of family on their life Every part of Agents of socialization play vital role on child. It’s put some impact and advantage on their surroundings. As the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder grows every year, the public’s attention on the subject has naturally increased as well. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly known in developing countries like Nepal. Many people cant’t deal with autistic well due to lack of awareness and lack of education.
This study is the result of a qualitative field research conducted in Jhapa and Sunsari District of Privince 1, Nepal in June and July, 2019. This study includes the voices of ASD children, family members and scholars, which are supplemented by the researcher’s observation notes, government and non-governmental organization data. The researcher used Coley socialization theory, Ch Coley self theory to produce information and draw conclusion on the study.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly known in developing countries like Nepal. Lack of awareness lack education the children are with autism significant deficits in social communication, including delayed language development and imitation skills. This order is different from other disorder and its characteristics and functions are also different. Sibling with their brother or sister with AS play important role in their socialization AS face many challenges as the disorder spectrum associated with disruptive antisocial behavior. The main objective of this research is to identify the role of sibling in socializing autistic children. This research was conducted though case study. The data of this study was collected from 4 siblings with autism spectrum. In our country autism newly introduced and research on autism especially role of the sibling of the autistic children in socialization are very few. This research deals with socialization of child with autism
PRAJAPATI, R.K (2018) QUALITY OF LIFE, COPING AND SELF-EFFICACY OF PARENTS RAISING CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER(ASD)
Quality of Life, Coping and Self- efficacy are the important components of health, especially mental health of an individual, which is specifically important context of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) while raising child with ASD. This study aimed to assess the Quality of Life(QOL), coping strategies, self- efficacy and its demographic variables. The World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Questionnaire BREF (WHOQOL-BREF-Nepali), Brief COPE Inventory and General Self-Efficacy of parents of children with ASD. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 73 parents (mothers = 57; fathers = 16) through purposive sampling design.
The results revealed that 64% of the participants scores were below the cutoff < 60 indicating probable poor quality of life but there were significant differences in QOL (F = 2.302, p < 0.05) among mothers and fathers; mainly in domains of physical (F = 2.414, p < 0.05) and psychological health (F = 2.554, p < 0.05) whereas it was not significant for domains of social relationships and environmental health. QOL and self-efficacy of the parents of children with ASD was linked with age as well as higher level of education.
Similarly, parents residing in urban areas also had significantly high scores in QOL compared to other parents. The cor-relational analysis showed that the QOL has low or insignificant relationship with the coping strategies (r = +. 088) but moderate level of positive correlation with self-efficacy (r = +. 462). Similarly, self-efficacy has moderate level of positive correlation with the physical health (r = +. 408), psychological health (r = +. 443), and problem focused coping strategies (r = +. 341). This study also revealed the physical health is not related with social relationships (r = -. 248 ) but highly correlated with the psychological health (r = +. 986). The study findings would help the stakeholders to develop appropriate psychological intervention programs for the parents, mainly to the mothers of children with ASD.
Keywords: Coping Strategies, Parents of Children with ASD, Self-efficacy and Quality of Life.
GAUTAM, D (2018) ECONOMIC STATUS OF A HOUSEHOLD HAVING CHILDREN WITH AUTISM: A CASE STUDY OF AUTISM CARE NEPAL SOCIETY
Economic status of a state plays an influential role in determining quality of life (QoL) of its citizen. In a least developed country like Nepal, health facility is far from efficient resulting untimely death of many. In situation when entire country is struggling to overcome curable disease, providing priority to non-curable condition such as autism is quite difficult. As the government is far from taking responsibility of CWA, financial component of raising CWA directly fall under the shoulder of parents impacting economic condition if a household.
This study is focused on identifying the economic condition of household while raising a CWA and expenses associated with it. The research study was conducted among 32 primary caretakers of CWA by deploying quantitative study tools. Schedule interview was conducted at the premises of ACNS with questions designed to capture economic situation of the respondents.
Majority of the parents are doing all they can to provide adequate therapies and attention to their CWA but are facing economic downfall. Also, Most of them have experienced professional career interruption as caretaking of a CWA is a full time job.
As majority of the mothers are the primary caretaker to the CWA, mother’s careers were particularly impacted. For over 88% of those who experienced an interruption, economic stress and the challenges of juggling their child’s medical and therapy appointments were key factors. More than half respondents became stay-at home parents due to their child’s needs, at the same time that their income was being reduced. Diagnosis of ASD leads to numerous additional expenses and in order to meet that household seem to sacrifice other requirements. Similarly, 66.67% respondents shared expenses allocated by therapies were the most inevitable expensive component of raising CWA because there are numerous therapies given such as Occupational therapy, Speech therapy, Physiotherapy, Behavior therapy, etc. Among 71.8% respondents saving money, 95.67% respondents are constantly found worried about their future and are saving for their CWA.
Every parent faces their own individual challenge while taking care of their CWA but there are common issues with significant level of stress attached to each of them. However, the extent to which the issue affects the parent and the types of issue faced are different from one parent to another.
Keywords: Economy, Autism, Children with Autism, Economic burden
BAJRACHARYA S., (2018) MAIN BARRIERS AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF PERSON WITH NEURO DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES IN NEPAL
In the context of Nepal, the issue of Person with Neuro-Developmental Disabilities (PWNDD) demands a closer look. There is lack of information on the prevalence and severity of the problem in the country regarding neuro developmental disabilities. Neuro developmental disability is not only the medical problem but it can be linked with social problem and rehabilitating them has been a major concern for many social organizations as well as government agencies. The study helps those agencies and also for those whom want to launch programs in the study area.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of the study is to assess whether types of Neuro developmental disability exist by age and sex. Also to determine are the barriers as the result of Neuro-developmental Disabilities varies according to types of disability.
In the study the variables were classified as independent and dependent variables showing association between each other. The independent variables in this research study were age and sex of C/PWNDD which affects the dependent variables they are Neuro-developmental disabilities namely; Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cerebral Palsy, Down Syndrome, and Intellectual Disabilities. On the other hand Neuro developmental disabilities were independent variables and affect the dependent variables which are functional and social barriers.
A purposive quantitative study was performed to assess main barriers and associated factors of Neuro-developmental Disabilities especially Autism, Cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and Intellectual Disability. The study areas were different 5 centers of Kathmandu valley, namely; ACNS, SGCP, DSAN, ABBS-HDCS and PCBRO. The study population was total C/PWNDD and their parents, siblings and teachers of specific centers. Among them, altogether 81 parents, siblings and teachers of C/PWNDD were total sample size. The sampling technique was purposive sampling. In regards of data collection one to one interviews were performed using interview questionnaires. The collected data were entered in the computer programs; SPSS software and MS Excel and then were processed and analyzed in the form of percentage, tables, graphs, charts. The statistical analysis like mean, median, range, standard deviation and standard error were performed for univariate analysis and Chi square test for bivariate analysis to determine the relationship with independent and dependent variables.
The research findings shows types of neuro-developmental disabilities were not likely to be affected by age group but likely to be affected by sex of C/PWNDD. Similarly it shows that though there are functional barriers and social barriers of C/PWNDD; in most of the cases it shows significant relationship between types of neuro developmental disabilities and functional barriers whereas shows insignificant relationship with social barriers. This finding shows that the parents have greater acceptance regarding their C/PWNDD. Especially the parents and other family members are good enough to support their C/PWNDD to reduce the participation restrictions and giving more opportunities to participate in various family gatherings, social and cultural events, recreational and entertainment programs. The parents are also more conscious about accessibility to physical environment, information and communication reducing the social barriers and associated factors.
Implications of the study
In the context of Nepal, the issue of C/PWNDD demands a closer look. There is lack of information on the prevalence and severity of the problem in the country regarding neuro developmental disabilities. Neuro developmental disability is not only the medical problem but it can be linked with social problem and rehabilitating them has been a major concern for many social organizations as well as government agencies. The study helps those agencies and also for those whom want to launch programs in the study area.
UPRETI, A (2017) NUTRITIONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER 5 IN JAGRITINAGAR SQUATTER SETTLEMENT OF KATHMANDU DISTRICT
The research focuses on the nutritional health and hygiene status of the children under 5 in Jagritinagar Squatter Settlement of Kathmandu District. The information has been collected and analyzed to get a comprehensive idea on the current nutritional health and hygiene status of children living in squatter settlements. The sample size was 40 out of the 227 females living in 120 households. All the 40 respondents of the research were mothers. The respondents were selected using purposive sampling method and were interviewed in their household using a questionnaire.
The level of awareness about nutrition in the area in terms breastfeeding practices and balanced diet was found to be good. The research shows that 52.5% mother’s breastfed their infants within 30 minutes after birth and 95% fed colostrums to the infant. The dietary trend of the children was also found to be good as the children had diets that included proper protein, vitamins and carbohydrate intakes in their daily diet. However, majority of the children were found of junk food particularly noodles. Majority of the children, 55% had a low birth weight due to insufficient nutritional intake and workload of mothers during pregnancy. Most of the women are engaged as wage workers and do not have adequate time to take care of themselves and their child.
Most of the children suffer from diseases like diarrhea, fever and acute respiratory infection out of which diarrhea is directly related to malnutrition. The people in the settlement have easy access to medical facilities with 2 private hospitals, 3 clinics and 4 medical shops nearby.
The study shows that people in the settlement use jar water for drinking purpose. 90% respondents used jar water and 0nly 10% respondent’s fetched drinking water from public tap located nearby. Majority of the families of not treat their drinking water. It was found that all the households have a toilet facility. The solid waste in the community was found to be managed properly after the municipality started collecting wastes from household.
The immunization in the settlement is good. It was found that 92.5% were given Vitamin A capsule, 97.5% were given Hepatitis B injection and all the children were given injection for Measles. However, majority of the mothers had not given a de-worming tablet to their child in the past 6 months.
There is no prevalence of disease like Iodine Deficiency Disorder, Protein Energy Malnutrition and Vitamin A Deficiency in the settlement but two cases of under-five morality were found. The deaths occurred to diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infection seven years ago.
It was found that nutritional status of the children has improves along with improvements in breastfeeding practices, balanced diet and immunization.
However, much attention should be given to maternal care during pregnancy, early childcare practices and sanitation and hygiene at the household level. Mothers should be made aware about the adverse impacts of diseases like diarrhea and the need of its timely treatment.
Keywords: Squatters, Nutritional Health and Hygiene, Colostrums, Sanitation
MANANDHAR, R (2017) EATING HABITS AND FEEDING PROBLEMS AMONG CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER
Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) is common neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 68 children and over half of children with ASD are found to have feeding problem. The study aims to find out the eating habits and feeding problems among ASD children.
This descriptive cross sectional study carried out at Autism Care Nepal Society, Gairidhara and Special Education and Rehabilitation Centre for special needs children, Baluwatar of Kathmandu Valley with sample size 50 children. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection. The obtained data was analyzed using descriptive method.
The study revealed that the children manifested eating habits such as selective eating(58%), consuming non-edible food(46%), non-verbalizing for their nutritional wants(38%), picky eating(30%), lack of self-feeding skills(25%), food refusal(23.6%), consumed pureed food(18%), 16% never communicate with others, rigid behavior(8% prefer food of specific brands and 6% insisted on using same utensils) and 6% had mealtime rituals. Besides these other findings were 28% had co-morbid conditions out of which 26% consumed drug, 6% children suffered from thyroid disorder, 6% got hospitalization for gastrointestinal problem, 8% had food allergies, 86% ate normal family diet, 20% had irregular eating speed and 14% ate faster, 46% parents did not allow their children to choose food, 26% had obsessive eating habits, 24% were not flexible with mealtime, 34% parents provided rewards and 64% punishment for their mealtime behavior, 16% disliked certain food and 24% had dental problem. 39.45% had feeding problem on average with majority on lack of communication(58%) and less on rigid behavior(12%).
Nearly 40% of parents had problem on eating habits. Therefore, the associated organization can organize training for both parents and children to enhance practice on feeding. In addition, link of thyroid disorder among mother-child to be studied.
GHIMIRE, B.K (2015) ROLE OF AUTISM CARE NEPAL SOCIETY (ACNS) IN FACILITATING EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SECURITY TO CHILDREN WITH AUTISM (CWA)
Disability is characterized by any deformities or deviation from a normal pattern of growth in the physical or internal structure in an individual acting as an obstruction in conducting their daily living activities smoothly. Autism is such a state of disability where a child by birth shows problem in three core areas: communication, social skills and repetitive behaviors (echolalia). It is usually considered as an invisible disability as people cannot tell the difference between a child with autism and the one without it. Slowly and steadily people are getting insight about autism and have identified education as a treatment for it. Moreover they are getting aware that even PWAs have the right to live their life with dignity and self esteem.
Thus, this project work tries to ascertain the various works done by Autism Care Nepal Society, the only active organization working for autism only, in the sector of education and Social security. The data used in the study is qualitative and descriptive in nature. It is acquired with the help of case studies, interviews with key informants and observation.
ACNS was established in April 2nd 2008 in the auspicious occasion of World Autism Awareness Day and is run by the passionate parents of the PWAs. With the help of government, national and international support, the organization conducts various activities like diagnosis, counseling, assessments and capacity building trainings along with imparting education to the children with autism through Aarambha Pre-primary School. The student in Aarambha are engaged in a series of activities designed to build up their daily living skills, communication needs, cognitive skills, group interactions and social skills through the involvement of various techniques and different therapy sessions.
Apart from this, the organization has been conducting meetings and discussions with the government officials trying to sensitize the issue of autism and bring it to a spotlight. However, the problem has not been solved yet as people still remain ignorant about the topic and often confuse it with a mental disorder associating it with mental illness or intellectual disability.
Keywords: Autism, Invisible disability, Education and Social Security to Autism, Autism Care Nepal Society (ACNS)
REGMI, S (2015) KNOWLEDGE REGARDING AUTISM AMONG THE FAMILY MEMBERS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM AT AUTISM CARE CENTER IN KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY
This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in Autism Care Nepal Society. The objective of the study was to find out the knowledge regarding autism among the family members of children with Autism. A total 40 sample was selected by using non-probability purposive sampling technique. Self administered structured and semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The data was analysed by using descriptive statistics.
The study findings revealed that all the respondents had known about Autism as a Neuro-developmental disorder. Similarly majority of the respondent’s child 80% were male and the child were diagnosed as an autism at age of more than 3 in 62.5%. The respondent accounting 90% told that they don’t know the exact cause of the Autism. The initial symptoms seen in the respondent’s child was language impairment, hearing impairment and lack of eye contact. Almost the entire 97.5% respondent had received training for the care of the child and improvement has been seen in the child’s behavior. All the respondents received training are satisfied from the training. The respondents feel problem in socialization of the child due to the childs hyperactive behavior.
PANDEY, S. (2015) PERCEIVED BURDEN IN CAREGIVERS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN KATHMANDU VALLEY
Parenting a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) causes more stress than parenting a child with other disabilities and creates a feeling of burden in them. This study was focused on obtaining a comprehensive picture of burden among caregivers of children with ASD. In this study, caregivers were found to have an average burden score of 41.49 plus/minus 12.25. Nearly 33% of caregivers were anxious while 24.6% were depressed. Level of education of caregivers was found to be significantly associated with overall burden and burden in social and family life, finances and control of life. The number of siblings of child with ASD was found to be significantly associated with burden in relationship. Anxiety and depression was found to affect the overall life of the caregivers except for their financial status. Qualitative analysis revealed five themes which were similar to the domins of Zarit Burden Interview. The domains were: burden in relationship, emotional well-being, finances, social and family life and loss of control over one’s life. In mixed method analysis, the quantitative findings were found to converge with almost all of the qualitative findings except in the status of caregiver’s depression. The divergence in status of depression might have occured as indepth qualitative exploration could reveal the inner feelings of caregivers.
This study thus concludes that the burden among caregivers of children with ASD is largely due to psychological distress and mixed method study is more illustrative in understanding subtle feelings like burden or psychological distress. It is recommended that psychological health of the caregivers should be evaluated with greater concern.
THAPA, N. (2015) PARENTAL COPING MECHANISM OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM: A CASE OF NEPAL
The present research tries to explore the stresses of parents of children with autism, to find out the coping strategy moslty used by parents of children with autism, compare between the strategy used by father and mother, to determine the health seeking behaviour, acceptance of autism in Nepalese society and to describe problems felt by teachers while working with children with autism.
The data was collected using mixed method that is combination of qualitative and quantative method in AutismCare Nepal Society and SSDRC. In quantitative method, to collect primary data, structured questionnaire and structured interview was carried out. In order to collect qualitative data, unstructured interview, information discussion and observation was done. Interview was carried out with parents of CWA. Informal discussion was done with teachers and parent of CWA. Autism was suspected early at about 3months of child age and diagnosed late upto 12years of age. The mean age of autism diagnosis is 2.71 years. Parents felt stressed when heard about autism in their child. Most parents showed psychological problem (40.98%) and then cried and shouted (31.14%) when heard that their child has autism. Around half (24.65%) of the children had no speech and 16.43% had no eye contact with others. Most of the parents felt stress (71.42%) because of thinking uncertain future of child. All fo the parents of CWA move through stressful situation. The first thing which parents showed when first heard about having autism in their child is crying and shouting. The main coping mechanism followed by parents of CWA is family relationship mechanism. Fathers mostly follow seek other support mechanism while mother follow personal involvement with CWA mechanism. Parents often and equally visit both traditional healers and pediatrician. Autism acceptance is not in practice in Nepal as most of parent’s aren’t aware about autism condition and cannot accept autism as it is. According to teachers, there are no adequate and trained teachers to teach CWA properly in Nepal. In-service training for teachers and parent and child training is essential for proper care of CWA.
Lama, M. (2015) TEACHER’S PERSPECTIVE ON THE INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM IN MAINSTREAM SCHOOLS
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. The prevalence of autism is about 1-2 per 1,000 people worldwide whereas in context of Nepal, 250000 to 300000 individuals have been estimated by AutismCare Nepal Society, 2015. It occurs about four times more often in boys than in girls. The severity of autism ranges from low to high functioning based on one’s intellectual ability or how much support the individual requires in daily life, however, DSM-V puts all types of autism under same heading Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The main objective of the mini project was to study the teacher’s perspectives on the inclusion of children with autism in mainstream schools. Also it, tended to explore common barriers faced by teachers and educational institution while integrating children with autism. The study was conducted in the teachers teaching in mainstream, inclusive or remedial school and had experience to teaching at least a child with autism. The study was moreover like a qualitative and cross sectionaly study which was carried out in mainstream, inclusive and remedial school in Kathmandu Valley. For the successful inclusion of the children with autism in mainstream schools, teacher’s training was most important along with collaboration of family and school administration. Use of PECS, ABA, Behavioral Therapy, TEACCH were essential for the teachers in order to manage challenging behaviors shown by children with autism.
BHANDARI, B. (2015) KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS CHILDREN WITH AUTISM IN KATHMANDU VALLEY
As more people know about autism, the number of children with autism will rise because parents, until now tend to treat autism the same way as they treat other mental problems. Parents of children with autism are bound to face new challenge in each step of life.
A descriptive cross – sectional research design was used to conduct research. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used to select 50 samples (either father or mother) of children with autism. For the collection of data, semi – structured questionnaire was used. Researcher developed structured interview schedule and collected data in AutismCare Nepal Society (ACNS) and through Home visit. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS Software Version 20.
The demographic findings of the study revealed that (44%) of the respondent were aged between 30-33 years of age. Maximum respondent were female and there was minimum participation of male. The research concluded that majority of the respondents have inadequate knowledge regarding child with autism although all the respondents showed positive attitude towards children with autism. More emphasis should be given for information education communication strategies. In addition to this public awareness about autism can be given through formal and informal program and through mass media.
Gurung, S. (2013) STUDY ON FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTISM
Autism is a pervasive mental disorder that presents as a disorder of profound social disconnection in early brain development. This disease is seen in the early life of the baby and usually occurs within 3years of birth. It is present all over the world and the prevalence of Autism in the World itself is 1 out of every 50 children. The objective of the study is to assess the factors associated with Autism.The research was conducted at autism care Nepal in Kathmandu valley. Simple Random sampling technique was used by lottery method. Semi structured questionnaire was used to assess the factor associate with autism. Sample size was case-30, control-60, 1:2 ratio. There were several factors that has been linked with Autism such as the prenatal, postnatal, neonatal and such other factors and the main point of focus is genetics. In this study the prenatal, postnatal, parental drug history and hereditary factors were studied. The study was case control study where the sampling was done with the prevalence of 1 out of every 50 children with the CI of 95% and Degree of error at 5%. Set of questionnaire administered through an interview was used to get the information. SPSS 17 was used for the data entry and analysis and Adjusted Odds Ratio was used to get the associated between the factors and Autism.Overall findings reveals that in the prenatal factors like the type of delivery, use of drugs during pregnancy, complications during pregnancy and stress during pregnancy had an association with Autism. In the Postnatal Factors like Weight at the time of birth, head injury during the childhood, severe accident during the childhood and physical illness after being vaccinated which had an association with Autism and odds ratio of 5.5, 0.833, 0.867 and 0.9 respectively. Similarly hereditary and parenatal drug history also associated with Autism.
SHRESTHA, V. (2013) NUTRITIONAL STATUS AMONG NEPALESE DISABLED CHILDREN (6-12) YEARS IN KATHMANDU VALLEY
Nutrition is need of consumption in our daily life and hunger is a normal and natural phenomenon among living beings. Globally malnutrition is the most important risk factors for illness and death, widely spread all over the world. It causes more than half of the deaths in children in developing countries. Nepal faces one of the highest prevalence of malnutrition. The disabled children are ignored and marked as most vulnerable for malnutrition. The study was conducted with the objective to find nutritional status of disabled children in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It was cross-sectional study of the 131 disabled children living in Kathmandu Valley. Data was collected using anthropometric measurement and general interview and analyzed using descriptive and chi-square with the level of significance at 0.05.
The study was conducted among mentally and physical disabled children age (6-12) years at two organizations; Autism Care Nepal and Nepal Disabled Association in Kathmandu, Nepal. The result of this study reveals that prevalence of malnutrition was seen higher in physically disabled children who were 62.5% as compared to mentally disabled, who were 49.3%. The study also revealed that females were more malnourished than males. As our culture, Girls are thought to not need as much strength as boys who affected the taking of the amount of meal as well.
A significant relation was seen between type of disability and food finishing habit, vegetable consumption and junk food consumption. The food eating habits and selection of the food seems to be problematic among mentally challenged children which may be risk in future if not prevented.
GHIMIRE, R. (APRIL, 2012) LIVED EXPERIENCES OF MOTHERS HAVING CHILDREN WITH AUTISM IN KATHMANDU
The words “Autistic” and “autism” are developed from the Greek word “autos” meaning “self’’. Leo kanner used the term autistic in 1943. Autism is neuro developmental disorder, starts at first three years of life and more common in boys than in girls. It is long term condition so needs life-long support and guide. Caring and managing children with autism is a challenging task so mothers need support and help.
The study was conducted with the objective of exploring the lived experiences of mothers who were taking care of children with autism. This qualitative study was conducted in Autism Care Nepal, Gairidhara, Kathmandu by using phenomenal method. 10 mothers having children with autism were selected as sample. An open ended interview guideline, audio tape and field note was used for collecting the information. Verbal and written informed consent was taken from each respondent.
The immense information was reduced to smaller statements to get the categorized and organized into 10 clusters of themes: behavior of the children, mode of treatment, reaction to diagnosis, experiences of therapeutic process, management of activities of daily living, cost management, social life, burden, satisfaction, experiences regarding schooling of the children and coping mechanisms.
The study reveals that all of the respondents were mother of child with autism and age ranged from 28-40 years. Regarding the occupation of the respondents, half of them were service holders, four of them were housewife and one was a social workers. All of the members realized that there was a difficult to maintain active social relation as before. All of the respondents had reported that uncontrollable behaviors of their children caused emotional breakdown. The most painful experiences of mothers 8 out of 10 were the schooling of the children. Respondents used to relieve their worries by sharing experiences with other mothers with similar problems. This study recommend that Public awareness program throughout country could be conducted. There is a need for research to examine the coping strategies, well being and caregivers satisfaction/burden experienced by caregivers to individuals with ASD.
Sharma, D. G.(2010) STUDY ON ESTIMATED PREVALENCE OF AUTISM
The study sought to estimate the prevalence of autistic cases in Kathmandu district. The specific objectives were to determine the level of autism prevalence and to find out the distribution pattern of autism by sex, age, ethnicity, socio-economic status.This study was done in Kathmandu district on December 2009 to Mid February 2010. Participants were selected through snow ball sampling. Prevalence Data was collected with the help of Pediatrician, Occupational therapist, Psychiatrist, Speech therapist; Disability associated organizations based on their link. Both qualitative and quantitative tools were adopted to assess prevalence since the study was of mixed type. FGD Guideline, In-depth interview guideline and semi-structured questionnaire were also used to collect data from the respondents accordingly.
One hundred and seven cases of autism were identified during the study in two and a half months period. Among them 77 percent were male and 50 percent were of the age group 6 years to 10 years. Brahmin and chhetri were affected more accounting 61 percent. Most of the cases were from the family with sound socio-economic status. Seventy four percent of cases were diagnosed before 3 years of age.
There is no scientific and research based evidence to conclude that the prevalence of autism has increased in past years. But from the experience of key informants who are working on their field for years, we can say that the prevalence of autism has increased in Kathmandu valley and can be attributed to other factors.